Lucknow At A Glance

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Area : 3244 sq.km
Population 36,81,416
Literacy Rate 57.5%
Rainfall : July - September
Phone STD Code 0522
Languages Hindi, English, Urdu
State Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

The multicultural city of lucknow is capital of Uttar Pradesh state. Manners which are derived from the courts of the nawabs, gardens that are resplendent with beauty, music, arts, poetry, cuisine that has a long history since the era of the nawabs, and many things are known to those who have gone deep into the culture of South Asia and its history. Popularly, the city of lucknow is also known as the city of Nawabs as well as the Golden City of the East, The Constantinopole of India and Shiraz-i-Hind.

History :

Plenty of mysteries and old folk lore is found in the lucknow history. The name of the city is probably derived from Lakshmana, who was Lord Rama’s younger brother, who belonged to the Kshatriya clam of Suryawanshi. When ordered by Rama, Lakshmana established the town of lucknow, near that of ayodhya, which was the capital of the kingdom of Rama. A strong fort was established by him, which is believed to be near the Lakshman Teela that is also seen in the present day lucknow that comprised of the city of Lakhanpur.

The city of lucknow, which was in the Awadh region, since 1350 had been under the rule of Delhi Sultanate, followed by Mughal empire and then it came under the local nawabs of Awadh, gradually passing on to the hands of East India Compnay and finally to the Britishers. This was also the place which had a major contribution in the 1857 rebellion, and the city had also a big participation in the Indian independence movement and finally emerged as an important city of north india.

Till the year 1719, Awadh was under the mughal empire, with a governor that was under the mughal emperor’s appointment. Saadat Khan, was a Persian adventure, who was also known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, came to be appointed as the nazim of Awadh in 1722 and the court was established in Faizabad near lucknow.

Awadh was also known as the Granary of the country and had strategic location because of its fertile land as it was located between the ganges and Yamuna rivers, the plains being known as Doab. The kingdom during those days was quite wealthy and therefore it could ward off many attackers such as the Marathas, the afghans and the britishers. It was during the time of Shuja-ud-Daula, the third nawab that there was a fall out with the britishers after he helped Mir Qasim who was a fugitive. The east india company defeated him in Battle of buxar and he had to pay penalties and part away with the land. In 1773, the britishers put a resident in his place and gradually controlled a major part of this territory. But the capture didn’t happen all at once due to the threat from the Marathas and the mughal empire.

After the mughal empire broke down, many small kingdoms were formed such as Awadh. During the time of the fourth nawab, lucknow became prominent as the capital of Awadh, when Asaf –ud-daula changed his capital from Faizabad in 1775. Gradually the city acquired the status of a culture capital with the nawabs leading a lavish lifestyle and patroned art and culture and music, dance and architectural buildings flourished under them. Some of the notable structure still found are Rumi Darwaza, Bara Imambara and Chhota Imambara. Ganga Jamuni Tehzeeb which is still evident in lucknow was probably started from the era of the nawabs.

Geography :

The city of lucknow is considered to be located in the great gangetic plain centre and has many towns and villages in the surroundings such as the Kakori, Malihabad, Gosainganj, Mohanlal ganj, Itaunja, Chinhat, etc. The district of Barabanki is in the eastern side, district of Unnao is towards the west, south side is bounded by district of Raebareli while the Hardoi and Sitapur districts are found in the north side. The important feature of Gomti river crosses through lucknow city and is geographically dividing it into two regions of Cis Gomti and Trans Gomti, with the city falling under seismic zone III.

Climate :

The climate of lucknow is of the humid and warm subtropical type with winters which are dry and cool lasting from December to February and from April to June, it is hot and dry summer season. From mid June to mid September is the rainy season, where average rainfall is about 896.2 mm due to the winds of South West monsoon. Sometimes January also has little amount of rain. The temperature during the winters are maximum of 25 deg C and lowest is about 2-3 deg C. During winters from late December to late January, fog is usually seen. It can be extremely hot in the summers when the temperatures can go as high as 40-45 deg c with the average temperature hovering around 30 deg C.